Predicting the impact of visual merchandising and product assortment on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior

ABSTRACT

Previous researches in the past have done on impulse buying and visual merchandising from which some authors prostate that sale of numerous range of products is the main cause of impulse buying. This paper determined the influence of product assortment and visual merchandising with the help of moderator variable digital signage on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior. The specific purposes are to answer three research questions which were tested at .05 level of significance. 454 consumers who come for shopping at our selected stores (Anem, Hyperstar, Metro, Macro and Pot Pourri) in Lahore were studied. Purposive sampling is used in this study. A total of 400 copies of the instrument are retrieved for analysis and observations analyzed through SPSS Software resulting that visual merchandising and product assortment does have an impact on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior while the role of moderating variable digital signage is also significant. This study aims to make a theoretical contribution by introducing digital signage as a moderator variable that how it influences the impulsive buying behavior of consumers with independent variable visual merchandising because it’s an addition in advertising mode as an electronic tool and new variable in the field of marketing. Little research found about this variable in previous studies. Finally, digital signage ads tend to be more attractive to shoppers who are on their first visit to the store; therefore it can enhance intentions of consumers of revisiting the store, result in more buying. This study can be valued for retailers, market owners and marketers to increase the sales of products and improve the visualization of the store. Keywords: Visual Merchandising, Product Assortment, Digital Signage, Impulsive Buying Behavior Imran et al.

INTRODUCTION

According to Rook (1987), impulse buying can be taken as an important factor in making strategic plans for any company while considering it as a persistent aspect of consumer’s behavior. Due to hefty competition retailers and shopping mall owners are trying to do more work on visual merchandising and trying to improve it for not getting differentiations from others but also to be prominent in the market and attracting the customers. For this, not only visual merchandising but also the retail product assortment has an impact on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). Much researches have been done in the past on impulse buying and visual merchandising from which some authors think that sale of a diverse range of products is the main cause of impulse buying (Hadjali, Salimi, & Nazari, 2012). On the other hand, product assortment can influence the behavior of impulse buying when consumers visit the store physically rather than browsing the product assortment in homes (Park, Kim, Funches, & Foxx, 2012). In other words, the impulse buying can be encouraged by having a unique and better product assortment, through the modernized display and comfortable settings of stores for consumers (Tendai & Crispen, 2009). Due to uncertain consumers preferences, it has become difficult for managers to find a useful assortment (Chong, Ho, & Tang, 2001). For this assortment should be attractive that enhance the store visualization, distinguish from others increases earning of retailers (Brijs, Swinnen, Vanhoof, & Wets, 1999). The point of view of Shamim (2012) is different from others. He says that products are not only the decisive factors in decision making, there are others like visual merchandising and display also play an important role in the consumer decision-making process. According to Asuquo and Igbongidi (2015), there might be another aspect which can influence the consumer’s buying decision; it includes product assortments carry by the store, mall or a shop. Visual merchandising represents the brand image (Meenakumari, 2013). Some author Bhatti and Latif (2013) state that it depicts the whole view of the store especially inner and outer aids in creating not only interest, desire and attention of consumers towards products and store but also cause action plan results in buying. Digital Signage is the addition in past studies and being used in this study as a moderator variable that can work as a sales person and provide the consumers with every information they are needed. It is not only an effective and efficient advertising medium but a perfect electronic display that will help the retailers to deliver the right message to the correct addressees or viewers at the right time (Valipakka, 2008). There might be many benefits of digital signage for retailers, according to Valipaka (2008) digital signage can influence the decision making of consumers at the time of purchase that is crucial in increasing sales. A literature review that digital displays are really persuasive not only to encourage impulse buying but also have great importance in getting the additional attention of consumer than conventional advertising (Dennis, Newman, Michon, Brakus, & Wright, 2010). Digital signage can be beneficial for retailers to improve its retail environment and sales. According to Minal, Sanjay and Urvashi (2012) consumers are concerned by way of the appeal of a product. Many studies have been conducted in the past regarding assortment, its size, etc. Assortment with other elements (ambiance) creates an effective retail mix (Oppewal & Koelemeijer, 2005). Some authors have also found that the decrease in product assortment means a decrease in sales (Borle, Boatwright, Kadane, Nunes, & Shmueli, 2005). While Vries and Ketel (2006) was the first, who conducted the study on varieties of assortment and its attractiveness. In different situation or conditions of buying and assortment varieties, the investigation was being made by them with relationship both assortment variety and assortment attractiveness. While Chong et al. (2010) through empirically based modeling framework assess the loss of sales and revenue for the manager in different categories of assortment. Oppewal and Koelemeijer (2005) focused on the study of assortment size and composition of assortment evaluation.

Research Questions

The research questions of the study are: does visual merchandising have a significant impact on Consumer impulse buying? Does product assortment have a considerable impact on the impulsive buying behavior of the consumer? Does digital signage moderate the relationship between visual merchandising and impulsive buying behavior? The Scope of the Study Impulse buying is being increased due to technological advancement (Iram & Chacharkar, Model of Impulse Buying Behavior, 2017) In past, researches are conducted to identify key elements of visual merchandising contributing to most for impulsive buying (Jhawar & Kushwaha, 2017), while other presented how new technologies applied to visual merchandising at point of sale could influence on consumer buying behavior (Sampaio, Zonatti, Mendizabal-Alvarez, Rossi, & Baruque-Ramos, 2017). Moreover, the mediating effects of perception and emotion, behaviors, and the role of advertisements have explained the impact of digital signage, however no model has developed yet to well explain the mediating role of digital signage on consumer ultimate buying behavior in-store atmospherics (Dennis, Michon, Brakus, Newman, & Alamanos, 2012). Base on the above literature, this study aims to explore a new electronic mode of advertising “digital signage” which is a new addition to the advertising field. According to Dennis et al. (2010, 2014), digital signage is helpful in improving retail atmospheric. Further, Digital signage is considered to be a new marketing promotional technique which can make a lot of impact on in-store consumer buying (Dennis et al., 2010). By exploring the techniques of visual merchandising that causes impulse buying international researchers can make a significant contribution in the consumer behavior literature (Wanniachchi & Kumara, 2016). Hence, this study is not taking single or various techniques.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Impulsive Buying Impulse buying is the buying which is made by any consumer without any planning before entering in the store (Iram & Chacharkar, 2017). Others state that it is quick decision-making and unplanned buying with idiosyncratic preference in favor of abrupt custody (Kacen & Lee, 2002). Numerous researchers have explained impulse buying in the past in their own way, but in these days most of the researchers are focusing on when and how instead of shoppers purchase decision is made and the buying itself (Clover, 1950; Applebaum, 1951; Kollat & Willet, 1967). Clover (1950) and Stern (1962) defined impulse buying for retailers as any type of accidental buying. Worldwide it is difficult to stick to one explanation of the sudden surge of buying, so, the duty of researchers is not only to develop an authentic and proper definition of impulse buying that can not only clarify the consumer’s buying behavior but also could target to these types of studies (Youn & Faber, 2000). Many studies have been done on spontaneous buying, not only the utmost common consumer behaviors in modern society but also has been the most exciting topic of authors (Hausman, 2000; Vohs & Faber, 2007; Xiao & Nicholson, 2011; Xiao & Nicholson, 2012). The researchers state that the ratio of sales due to impulse buying in a departmental store is 38.7% and 80%of shoppers urge to buy at least irregularly (Jenny & Ma, 2012). Some authors have defined the impulse buying as an abrupt, solid, instant, entangle and impossible to resist buying (Rook 1987; Gardner & Rook 1993; Bayley & Nancarrow 1998). It is also the significance of impulse buying that in all kind of shopping, it has become the part of daily lives of consumers. Thus, it is stated that impulse buying is now getting attraction, interest, and attention of marketers and consumer researchers (Bayley & Nancarrow, 1998; Lee & Kacen, 2008). The essential thing which forced the scholar of consumer researchers to examine spontaneous buying with rational choice model was clearly its inconsistency and intricacy (Dittmar, Beattie, & Friese, 1996; Wood, 1998; Silvera, Lavack, & Kropp, 2008; Sharma, Sivakumaran, & Marshall, 2009; Xiao & Nicholson, 2012). Other researchers (Ditmar, Beattie & Friese, 1996; Vohs & Faber, 2007; Sharma, Sivakumaran, & Marshall, 2009) think that instinct buying is now not only a major concern for consumer researcher but also a very important trend in modern society. Stern (1962) has played many roles in the comprehension of this concept of impulse buying behavior, and the mean of pure impulse buying is when consumers practice impulsive buying in actual and impulse purchase means the newness or get a way buying that is opposite of regular sequence of buying. According to his concept, impulsive buying can be pure, premeditated, reminder and offer, and it is associated with planned and offer a reminder of the stimulus and exposure to consume. Some authors have used it interchangeably like “unplanned” and “spontaneous” buying (Jenny & Ma, 2012). Many Pakistani researchers also have conducted studies on impulsive buying. Tirmizi, Kashif-Ur-Rehman and Saif (2009) have stated that when the shelves are displayed beautifully with the youth-oriented consumer products, it becomes desirable to shoppers which in return fosters impulse buying behavior of consumers. Bashir, Zeeshan, Sabbar, Hussain and Sarki (2013) have worked at Another topic namely“Impact of Cultural Values and Life Style on Impulse Buying Behavior: A case study of Pakistan” that not only have discussed the traditional tenets, lifespan flairs, behavior related to spontaneous buying but also boded the influence of first two variables (cultural value and life styles) on third variable (impulsive buying behavior) of Pakistani customers. Moreover, the effects of age and education level have also been studied. Compulsive and impulsive is related to each other and it has been seen and examined between all prominent five traits that both are positive with workload or stress which means that individuals who exercise emotional instability, anxiety, sulkiness, tetchiness, and dissatisfaction are more likely to display impulsive and compulsive buying behavior (Shahjehan, Qureshi, Zeb, & Saifullah, 2012). Niazi, Siddiqui, Shah, and Hunjra (2012) by taking responses of 200 from consumers of twin cities of Pakistan have examined other responses (emotional and environmental as independent variables) which might play their role in impulse buying. While the dependent variable was buying behavior of consumer of Pakistan. After taking results, positive associations have been found between the buying behavior and emotional responses while negative between environmental and consumer buying behavior. It means the consumer of Pakistan are more emotional and this causes of buying the products. Environmental stimuli cause impulsive buying or unplanned buying from the consumer’s end. Another author defines impulsive buying in his own style. According to him the impulsiveness based on quick reactions/ actions without other reflection that implies on the issue to impulsive actions studied by authors in the different fields like (Social Work, Intellectual biopsychology, and other fields of Social Psychology) (Jenny & Ma, 2012). While the concern of another author (Hausman, 2000) decade ago was to study the more accurate and suitable definition of impulse buying rather than studying why several consumers act impulsively during their frequent purchasing.

Visual Merchandising

It is a skill or art and science which present the product in that way which attracts and appeal to consumers, and it is the best way to communicate with customers by images and presentations of product (Ebster & Garaus, 2011). Others state that the visual merchandising (both internal and external) in the eyes of the customer to see, and help get the attention, interest, desire and action by the customer, and also that create a positive image of business (Bhatti & Latif, 2013; Wanniachchi & Kumara, 2016; Jhawar & Kushwaha, 2017). Some authors state that visual merchandising is a skill or art and science which present the product in that way which attracts and appeal to consumers and it is the best way to communicate with customers by images and presentations of product (Ebster & Garaus, 2011). Others say that the visual merchandising (both internal and external) in the eyes of the customer to see and help get the attention, interest, desire, and action by the customer. And also that create a positive image of business (Bhatti & Latif, 2013). Hubrechts and Kokturk (2012) illuminate the purpose of visual merchandising by defining the concept of visual merchandising. He states: Visual merchandising is just only the art but its basic mean to “present the store/shop and its products to shoppers through the collaboration of the shows, advertising of stores, special events, style bringing together and with the help of merchandise department in order to sell more good and services offering by the store/ shop or group” (Sabir, Farooqi, & Shahnawaz, 2015). “So, the purpose or basic aim of visual merchandising is to provide knowledge, give awareness to consumers, increase the store/company’s image to enhance multiple sales”(Meenakumari, 2013). In the eyes of other researchers, visual merchandising means presenting the store and its merchandise to get or capture the attention of prospective customers and hearten them for more purchasing. The visual merchandising force has greatly helped to stimulate retailer’s sales, which will be sold by them and most of the Imran et al. Asian Management Research Journal 2(4) © 2017 SAMR 192 times retailers hound through visual merchandising to sell commodities with the basic objective of attracting customers. So, more concern of visualization of product and brands of any store that are best communicators and this message should reach properly to the consumers through visual merchandising (Hubrechts & Kokturk, 2012). Hypothesis 1: Visual merchandising has a significant impact on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior. The previous studies are the evidence of this development that buying behavior of consumer is influenced by visual merchandising practices and it leads to impulse buying as well (Jhawar & Kushwaha, Visual Merchandising and Impulse Buying Behavior with special reference to Retail Industry, 2017). It’s mean this study support our hypothesis. Another study supporting the building of this hypothesis that practices of visual merchandising are capable of forcing consumers to buy on impulse (Thomas, Louise, & Vipimkumar, 2018). Our study is based on the social constructional theory of material possession which says that concerned with the ways we think about and use product categories to structure our experience and analysis of the world (Dittmar, 1992; Rook & Fisher, Normative Influences On Impulsive Buying Behavior, 1995). For the buying behavior of shoppers, the significance of visual merchandising has taken small attention in the literature. It has been recommended by the different authors that visual merchandising can create the first impression of the store at the initial level and the main thing which attracts towards store or has influence is the outlook of the store that is attractive and coerce them to choose that store (Bhatti & Latif, 2013). The choice of the by a customer means that when they visit a specific store for buying a particular item for a particular store. The initial purpose to pull the customers in the store and attract them for purchasing. In these days all retailers are doing work on visual merchandising and trying to convert the buyers into customers by capturing the attention of customers (Bhatti & Latif, 2013). For the buying behavior of shoppers, the significance of visual merchandising has taken small attention in the literature. The different authors have recommended that visual merchandising can create the first impression of the store at the initial level and the main thing which attracts towards store or has influence is the outlook of the store that is attractive and coerce them to choose that story (Bhatti & Latif, 2013). The choice of the by a customer means that when they visit a specific store for buying a particular item for a particular store. The initial purpose to pull the customers in the store and attract them for purchasing. In these days all retailers are doing work on visual merchandising and trying to convert the buyers into customers by capturing the attention of customers (Bhatti & Latif, 2013). Previous researchers have studied in detail at how a salesperson can induce consumers for impulsive buying with productive selling techniques encompassing advertising, window display, lighting, music and digital signage also (Brodén & Söderberg, 2011). It is stated above that external provocations may be added to catch the consumers’ properly and enhance its insentient desires. This is especially important for companies to work it through other methods of marketing. Generally, the various products assortment should be appealing to the customer. There should also be a satisfactory knowledge enough about the product’s features and environment that can make life easier for the customer to make a purchase decision (Brodén & Söderberg, 2011). According to (Levy & Weitz, 2009; Sabir et al., 2015) every retailer desires to make their stores to get attention of customers and entice them to enter into their shops, to support them to discover the merchandises they want and to stimulate them to make unhurried, surprising and forced to buy and ultimately provide them with a pleasing shopping exercise. While another Sabir et al. (2015), state that visual marketing and customer incentive raise the nature of the environment that these types of visual goods groups appear in the retail clothing stores can deal with customers, forecasting, which are applied in practice when a person observes, selects, organizes and react environmental stimulation in a unique way. The shelf displays, digital signage, in-store promotional activities, marketing activities, attachment of consumers with store, web sites, theme displays, mascot, welcome boards, creative names and celebrity endorsement plays an integral role in influencing consumer impulse buying behavior (R & Agarwal, 2014). The overall impact of visual merchandising on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior is significantly impacting rather than its some or one element.

Product Assortment

A firm that sells a total number of diverse articles in a given transaction is called a selling assortment (Balderston, 1956). The offer of a retailer to consumers in the shape of a unique mix of products or a set of all products offered by a retailer for sales (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). It includes width and depth. On the whole of different lines of product that can be found in one or single store (width assortment) or a specific product available at the store in different types of color, shapes, and features and also in price (depth assortment) (Aspfors, 2010). A firm that sells a total number of diverse articles in a given transaction is called a selling assortment (Balderston, 1956). And it has been stated that the store position plan should be reflected clearly by the product assortment (Aspfors, 2010). A product assortment is important to distinct from other retailers and to satisfy the desires and needs of buyers better than the competition; it is highlighted by the management of market and retail textbooks (Simonson, 1999). Small assortment in colors, aromas, quality, reminiscence, features or components, versions, designs, choices, and styles are being offered by the producers of the high quality of products in many industries (Shugan, 1989). Product assortment is being mounted by many companies due to the increase in customer which are particular product variants (Mortensen, Yu, Skovgaard, & Harlou, 2000). Other researchers define the product assortment as “It is an exceptional combination of products that the retailer has to present or offer,” and different ranges of products with various varieties are included in it, stocked by these lines (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). Simonson (1999) has stated that the requirements of the consumers can be fulfilled through product assortment and can also influence desires and likings of buyers. Product assortment also influences consumer’s preferences because they are unable to make the proper decision even they have proper information about the quality and characteristics of products, also even they are not clear about their preferences (Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998). Hypothesis 2: Product assortment has a significant impact on consumer’s impulsive buying behavior. A product assortment is important to distinct from other retailers and to satisfy the desires and needs of buyers better than the competition; it is highlighted by the management of market and retail textbooks (Simonson, 1999). Authors state that product assortment also helps in increasing the loyalty towards stores. Asuquo and Igbongidi (2015) found that impulse buying behavior of customers can be greatly influenced and caused by retail product assortment and visual displays. Also, he also found that consumer’s impulsive buying behavior has been influenced by offering and creating a different quality of products with different assortments in natures, shades, and dimensions. Prior research on impulse buying found its many antecedents, including individual characteristics such as impulse buying tendency (Beatty & Ferrel, 1998) and optimum stimulation level (Sharma, Sivakumaran & Marshall, 2009); product category variables such as involvement and situational factors such as time and money availability (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998), in-store advertisements, in-store signage, instore slack, display (Muruganantham & Bhagat, 2013). Asuquo and Igbongidi (2015) have found that impulse buying behavior of customers can be greatly influenced and caused by retail product assortment and visual displays. Also, they have also found that consumer’s impulsive buying behavior has been influenced by offering and creating a different quality of products with different assortments in natures, shades, and dimensions. It has been discussed that visualization of products in the store is really important and it is considered as a significant aspect, defined above also. It should be placed in a specific way that could assist the customer selection and elevate the sales because it is a great presentation of products in a store that not only attracts but also can lure the buyers. The displays of all products are based on basic principles designed to enhance the items purchased (Hodge, 2004). Asuquo and Igbongidi (2015) noted that attractive displays continue to amaze or catch the eyes of customers when they entered the store. Another author also noted that when the customer is faced with a sudden and strong desire often and constantly to buy something immediately the impulse buying occurs (Rook, 1987). This study is related to impulse buying, assortments of products and visual merchandising. Therefore, the definition of impulse buying means the making of buying which is happened when the customer is exposed to the product showing in an attractive and appropriate way that can be located easily in the store. Therefore, the design of the store must be attractive to influence the buying behavior of customers that can also allow them to identify the goods and make sure their stay in store as long as possible.

Digital Signage

It can be defined as a perfect electronic display which displays almost everything including advertisement of companies and products, information and another kind of messages (Khan, 2009). Digital advertisements and public displays showing video are considered to be important channels for marketing the product and communicating with consumers in the retail shopping environment. The previous studies revealed that in-store advertisement is dependent upon both the content of the message (appeal type and product category) the context (shopping mall) quality of exposure (audience need state, traffic speed, and direction, message frequency and duration). Results also proved that shoppers give more preference to those messages which fulfill their current demands and less responsive to old-style brand messages. Digital signage is a new technology and is used as an electronic medium of advertising. In Europe most of the retailers have launched digital signage, China is also included in it. It is not only an effective and efficient advertising medium but a perfect electronic display that will help the retailers to deliver the right message to the right addressees or viewers at the right time (Valipakka, 2008). Digital Signage is the addition in past studies and being used in this study as a moderator variable that can work as a sales person and provide the consumers with every information they are needed. According to Parakh, Bindal, and Saldanha (2016), forty percent of sales are done impulsively, and it brings revenue rather than blame (Iram & Chacharkar, Model of Impulse Buying Behavior, 2017). The big market is young adults, and now the young mind is the target of the market. And the ratio of young respondents (below 25) of this study is higher than other age groups. Because there is a slight increase in impulse buying between the ages of 18-39 and then decline is started in spontaneous buying (Parakh, Bindal, & Saldanha, 2016). In the industry of advertising the term digital signage is now getting popularity and consistently growing particularly in the area of out of home advertising (Digital Signage Resources 2008; Valipakka, 2008). At the point of buying it has been considered as a brilliant mode for information for inducing and prompting of consumers. The digital signage is effectively reaching customers through the handful of their attention and also making an efficient and effective way of advertising. So, digital signage makes possible to deliver the right message to the right addressees or viewers at the right time (Valipakka, 2008). The implementation of digital signage can be done in different ways like liquid crystal displays, light emitting diodes, digital projection and plasma displays, etc.(Khan, 2009). Khan (2009) states that this digital signage can be used in different places in areas like airports, research organizations, shopping malls, railway stations, and restaurants to target viewers at a specific time by delivering information, graphics, animations, videos, text, and other high-quality web contents. Hypothesis 3: The relationship between visual merchandising and impulse buying behavior is moderated by digital signage. It is moderating only with visual merchandising and impulsive buying behavior. Previous studies have seen direct relationship of digital signage with impulse buying as it gives a message to customers as the same purpose of visual merchandising, the difference is digital signage is electronic medium, and both are used as an advertisement of the product and store. The previous study conducted by Dennis et al. (2010) was to see the effects of preferences of digital signage rather than its presence or absence. So, we tried to see its presence with visual merchandising in this study that was found significant. For the retail environment, digital signage is an excellent and influential medium of advertising. Retailers can easily communicate with the consumer through digital signage in a retail environment by informing and updating them from all information (current affairs). Digital signage can influence the decision making of consumers at the time of purchase that is crucial in increasing sales (Valipakka, 2008). There are screens in digital signage for showing videos in community places. Dennis et al. (2010) state that mostly the purchase decision are made at the point of purchase in a store or outlet, the figure is seventy percent; according to survey conducted by the point of purchase association. So, it can be concluded that in-store marketing is really influential in the decision-making process for customers because it is a set off of impulse buying result positive impact on sales. Digital signage is considered as an experienced provider in a retail space, investigated by many authors (Dennis et al., 2010). Fewer studies have been found in a literature review of digital signage that’s why we used this variable in our study as a moderator

Figure 1: Theoretical model of the study

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This study is cross-sectional and causal to measure the impact of independent variables (Visual merchandising and product assortment) on the dependent variable impulsive buying behavior of Lahore retail consumers. Supermarket shoppers are the unit of analysis (Tifferet & Herstein, 2012). The consumers of retail stores in Lahore were conveniently distributed 450 questionnaires out of which 400 were usable. The reason of taking sample size large was that most of the previous studies of this nature sample size were more than 300 (Mehta & Chugan, 2012; Cop, Sönmez, & Topuz, 2015). The data collected from retail stores such as (Anem, Hyperstar, Metro, Macro and Pot Pouri) Because these stores are located in posh areas of Lahore and have multiple varieties of products and using signage that not only attracts the consumers but also provide details about products and stores. Consumers who came there for shopping found to be well educated and strong financially. So, we thought they could be involved in impulsive buying that’s why these stores were selected. Five-point Likert scale (strongly disagree=1 to strongly agree=5) is used to measure the operational variables such as impulse buying behavior (5 items) are taken from (Chatvijit, 2012). Visual merchandising the second variable (5 items) are taken from a study by (Meht & Chugan 2012; Karbasivar & Yarahmadi, 2011). Third variable digital signage (5 items) are taken from (Dennis et al., 2014). The last fourth variable of product assortment (5 items) is taken from (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). To determine the relationships among variables of study multiple regression analysis is used as a statistical test (Mai, Jung, Garold, & Loeb, 2003). Cronbach’s alpha (α) is conducted to test the reliability of the research instrument. To test the normality of data Kurtosis test is applied from normal techniques. However, to check the moderation effect of digital signage on the relationship of visual merchandising and impulsive buying behavior Andrew Hayes (2013) is used.

RESULTS

The data is collected from the 304 respondent from the planned sample of 450. There are no outliers identified in the data. The data is processed using the SPSS software analysis. Statistical analysis that is used includes descriptive statistics, person correlation, and standard multiple regression analysis.

Reliability Test A multi-point type or range factor reliability educed factor alpha and 0-1 form (can be used to describe the two forms) stability. The accumulative Cronbach Alpha for 21 items is 0.80. Values of reliability for key variables of study, i.e. digital signage, impulse buying, and product assortment are 0.68, 0.65 and 0.60 respectively which are considered good measures of consistency. Cronbach’s alpha for moderating variable is 0.74 which is considerably reliable.

Normality

The normality of data is tested by researchers through kurtosis. Kurtosis denotes how “flat” is a distribution and measures the extent to which observations bunch around a midpoint of the data. When the observations group more to left and tail is longer at right than left, it is positive kurtosis. Kurtosis is negative when observations bunch more to right and less to the left, and the tail is longer at left than right. Generally, if statistics of kurtosis is between -2 and +2, the data is considered as a normal distribution. This rule of -2 and +2 is a common thumb rule.

The value of Kurtosis falls between +2 to -2, which shows data is normally distributed. Multicollinearity is one of the assumptions of regression. In this model, VIF for both independent is below 10 and tolerance is greater than 1, the assumption of no relationship between independent variables is met. VIF for all these variables is far below 10 and tolerance is greater than 1, so there is no problem of Multicollinearity in data.

Correlation Analysis

For identification and checking the relationships between variable correlation analyses is used.

  Multiple Regression Analysis: Regression is utilized to gauge the relationship between dependent and one or more independent variables (De Vaus, 2002). To identify variation in impulsive buying behavior due to product assortment and visual merchandising, regression was applied. Table 6: Coefficients For impulsive buying behavior, unstandardized partial slope (0.23) is significant (t = 5.02, p= 0.00). If there is an increase of one percent in visual merchandising, impulsive buying behavior will be changed by 23.3%. For impulsive buying behavior, unstandardized partial slope (0.15) is significant (t = 2.79, p= 0.00). If there is an increase of one percent in product assortment, impulsive buying behavior will be changed by 15.1%. Significance of interception (T= 10.33, P=0.00) with unstandardized partial slope (1.84). Square R shows that 16.4% change in impulsive buying behavior of the total predicted by the visual merchandising and product assortment. To determination the relationships among variables of study multiple regression analysis are used as a statistical test (Mai, Jung, Garold, & Loeb, 2003). In SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) Cronbach’s alpha (Cronback, 1951) to see the reliability of the construct. To test the normality of data Kurtosis test is applied from normal techniques. And to see the moderation effect of digital signage on the relationship of visual merchandising and impulsive buying behavior Andrew Hayes (2013) was used. To test the 3rd hypothesis with moderation I am going to use Andrew F. Hayes. Table 7: Moderation Effect of Digital Signage Values for quantitative moderators are the mean and/minus one SD from the mean. Values for dichotomous moderators are the two values of the moderator. Level of confidence for all confidence intervals in output: 95.00 The overall regression is statistically significant and explained a large proportion of the variance in impulse buying behavior, R = 0.45, adjusted R2 = 0.20, F = 26.06, p = 0.00 Visual Merchandising had a significant effect on Impulse Buying Behavior, with an unstandardized slope b = 0.34, t = 2.40, p = 0.01. Visual Merchandising uniquely predicted about 34% of the variance in Impulse Buying Behavior. The effect for Digital Signage was statistically significant, b = 0.35, t = 2.11, p = 0.03. The interaction between Digital Signage and Visual Merchandising was not statistically significant, with b = 0.00, F = 0.68, p = 0.40.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Results of the quantitative analysis are strongly supporting our three hypotheses. At a general level, we have shown that the impulse buying is heavily influenced by product assortment and visual merchandising. Men and women alike tend to do impulse buying and are attracted by the visual marketing with the help of digital signage and product assortment. The multiple linear regression results provide that a significant portion of impulsive buying behavior is predicted by visual merchandising with F= 29.42 and p=0.00. For impulsive buying behavior, unstandardized partial slope (0.23) is significant (t = 5.02, P= 0.00). With a one percent increase in visual merchandising, there is a 23% change in impulsive buying behavior. Our findings support the study of Abratt and Goodey (1990). The study of Mehta and Chugan (2012) also supports our study. Also, our results suggest that both visual merchandising and impulse buying behavior are correlated to each other and visual merchandising play an important role in creating the desires that motivate consumers in making impulse buying decisions (Beatty & Ferrel, 1998). Hence it is the first touch point for the customer in the store, so, it should be more attractive. Retailers must use these findings effectively not to increase their sales but to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Second hypotheses were: For impulsive buying behavior, unstandardized partial slope 0.15 is significant (t = 2.79, p= 0.00). If there is an increase of one percent in product assortment, impulsive buying behavior will be changed by 15.1%. Significance of interception (t= 10.33, p=0.00) with unstandardized partial slope (1.84). Square R shows that 16.4% change in impulsive buying behavior of the total predicted by the visual merchandising and product assortment. Mostly the respondents have agreed that product assortment has an impact on consumer impulse buying behavior. And the same results were being taken by Asuquo and Igbongidi (2015) from their respondents. This study has found that stores have good and well-mannered display pattern of products that categorize the products then mostly consumers can be easily inclined to Impulse buying. The findings are related to the same opinion of Cox and Brittain (1993) that in the store the placement, decoration, and presentation of the product is really an important step to get an increase in sales, and this has power for prompt buying decision of consumer on the spot. Correspondingly, the result findings support the opinion of Levy and Weitz (1998), they studied if there is more prominence and visibility of products in the store, more chances of buying by consumers (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). On the other hand, it has been stated by many researchers that digital signage is the alternative of salespersons that communicate everything to the consumers and it should be clear because it is helpful in enhancing the experience of the store (Jiang & Liu, 2014). The overall regression was statistically significant and explained a large proportion of the variance in impulse buying behavior, R = 0.45, adjusted R2 = 0.20, F = 26.06, p = 0.00 .Visual Merchandising had a significant effect on Impulse Buying Behavior, with an unstandardized slope b = 0.34, t = 2.40, p = 0.01. Visual Merchandising uniquely predicted about 34% of the variance in Impulse Buying Behavior. The effect for Digital Signage was statistically significant, b = 0.35, t = 2.11, p = 0.03. The interaction between Digital Signage and Visual Merchandising was not statistically significant, with b = 0.00, F = 0.68, p = 0.40. Moderator variable digital signage with the help of visual merchandising will gauge and comprehend the impulsive behavior of consumer’s buying. The current study also shows its efficacy and usefulness supported by Jiang and Liu (2014) who conducted the study on the electric store that well-designed store by both exteriorly and interiorly not causes in grabbing the attentions of buyers or consumers but also induce them to enter in-store physically. Research Implications The particular digital signage in this study was used to convey information (e.g., advertising) and had little or no entertaining effect on those just spending time in the malls. Mall managers, therefore, need to consider market segmentation in the design of digital signage content. We have demonstrated in this study that information based content is suitable for targeting the consumers. Entertainment-based content may well be preferred by retired and non-working shoppers, although further research is recommended to confirm this. The authors state in future directions that the formal testing of moderation effects was precluded by considerations of sample size but remains an objective for future studies (Dennis, Michon, Brakus, Newman, & Alamanos, 2012). Our study is also accordance with researchers of other countries that visual merchandise have an impact on Consumer Buying behavior in Supermarkets (Hubrechts & Kokturk, 2012; Meenakumari, 2013; Mehta & Chugan, 2012; Karbasivar & Yarahmadi, 2011; Cop, Sonmez, & Topuz, 2015). The managerial implications for the current study are important for mall owners and retailers directing them to make productive use of digital signage that can be demonstrated to enhance the visualization of the store. This study can be valued by retailers, market owners and marketers to increase the sales of products and improve the visualization of the store (Dennis et al., 2014). The research demonstrating impulse buying as a fragmented, based on poor theory and without testing in many areas (Verplanken & Sato, 2011). The new researchers can take it in their studies in different ways because it’s an addition in advertising mode as an electronic tool. Digital signage is a variable used as a moderator variable in the study, and it was the addition of any kind of research as a stimulation. This study would make a contribution for academias and marketers in the field of in-store atmospherics which would be helpful in influencing consumers cognition, which then influences emotions whereas the “peripheral” route is emotion →cognition. It would make a contribution to the Social Construction Theory is concerned with the ways how shoppers think about product categories, assortment and visual merchandising impact in structuring their shopping experience. Limitations and Directions The researcher selected shoppers from one city Lahore, Pakistan. The focus was only studying the consumer’s buying behavior except for other characteristics which may include consumer personality. Upper and middle class of Lahore who came to large and famous stores for shopping was the main target of our study while rest was ignored because we consider large store for gathering information. So, for verifying the differences in behavior of buyers the other cities can be considered also for future studies. Digital signage is an economically promising field in advertising. It is a hardly researched field; first empirical attempts focused on consumer reactions. Digital signage, though, brings together various market players, all of which with different objectives and expected benefits. For this reason, we introduce a conceptual framework for interactive digital signage that allows developing various business strategies and associated business values integrating the entire set of possible players in their relevant roles and configuration requirements. A rule set represents one of the core modules of the framework, which allows for the sustainable integration of functionalities. Acknowledging that technological and non-technological advancements of digital signage need reconcilement, our proposed integrated approach to digital signage allows for interdisciplinary contributions. Therefore, this research concludes that the results of the quantitative analysis are strongly supporting the study hypotheses. At a general level, it is shown that the impulse buying is heavily influenced by product assortment and visual merchandising. Men and women alike tend to do impulse buying and are attracted by the visual marketing with the help of digital signage and product assortment. The results of our study and approach have not only straight forward application but also can be the new insight for the authors and researchers in the various fields concerned to impulse buying. The results suggest that both visual merchandising and impulse buying behavior are correlated to each other and visual merchandising play an important role in creating the desires that motivate consumers in making impulse buying decisions. Hence it is the first touch point for the customer in the store, so, it should be more attractive. Retailers must use these findings effectively not to increase their sales but to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Mostly the respondents have agreed that product assortment has an impact on consumer impulse buying behavior. According to the consumers, all items were capable of influencing consumer’s impulse buying behavior even these were minimal squat products like chewing gum, magazines, chocolates and products that are reliable and have satisfactory functions over time. There are other products like perishable who have a short life span that can not only be easily stored but also much lighter and easily conveyed. Its means all the cluster of items can influence impulse buying behavior of consumers if they are arranged properly, displayed in a way that can catch the eye of consumers by keeping those products near the store entrance and check out point which is more demanding. While the daily routine of the products of consumers and visual merchandising can play an essential role in it. Moreover, store ambiance and organized product display pattern allow consumers to get easily inclined to Impulse buying. Our findings are related to the same opinion of Cox and Brittain (1993) that in the store the placement, decoration, and presentation of the product is really an important step to get an increase in sales, and this has power for prompt buying decision of consumer on the spot. Correspondingly, the results and our findings support the opinion of Levy and Weitz (1998), they studied if there is more prominence and visibility of products in the store, more chances of buying by consumers (Asuquo & Igbongidi, 2015). Moderator variable digital signage with the help of visual merchandising will gauge and comprehend the impulsive behavior of consumer’s buying. Our study is supported by Jiang and Liu (2014) who conducted the study on the electric store that well-designed store by both exteriorly and interiorly not causes in grabbing the attentions of buyers or consumers but also induce them to enter in-store physically. Many authors have taken ambiance also in visual merchandising by saying that these all have a positive impact on consumer’s impulse buying behavior. For example, music helps in increasing the buying of products by stimulating the buying behavior of consumers in a retail environment after arousing the reactions of consumer’s mental and psychological complex (Jiang & Liu, 2014).

REFERENCES

Abratt , R., & Goodey, S. D. (1990). Unplanned buying and in-store stimuli in supermarkets. Managerial and Decision Economics,11(2), 111-121. Applebaum , W. (1951). Studying customer behavior in retail stores. Journal of Marketing, 16(2), 172-178. Aspfors, E. (2010). Customer perception of service, store image and product assortment: From an interior store perspective (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Vaasa University of Applied Sciences, https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/16719/Aspfors_Emm a.pdf. Asuquo, E. E., & Igbongidi, P. B. (2015). Retail store merchandise assortment and display and their influence on consumer impulse buying behaviour in North-West Nigeria. British Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(5), 49-60. Balderston, F. E. (1956). Assortment choice in wholesale and retail marketing. Journal of Marketing, 21(2), 175-183. Bashir, S., Zeeshan, M., Sabbar, S., Hussain, R. I., & Sarki, I. H. (2013). Impact of cultural values and life style on impulse buying behavior: A case study of Pakistan. Internationl Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), 193-200. Bayley, G., & Nancarrow, C. (1998). Impulse purchasing: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenon. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 1(2), 99-114. Beatty, S. E., & Ferrel, M. E. (1998). Impulse buying: Modeling its precursors. Journal of Retailing, 74(2), 161-167. Bettman, J. R., Luce, M. F., & Payne, J. W. (1998). Constructive consumer choice processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(3), 187-217. Bhatti, K. L., & Latif, S. (2013, October). The impact of visual merchandising on consumer impulse buying behaviour. Proceedings of 4th Asia- Pacific Business Research Conference Bayview Singapore. Bolin, J. H. (2014). Hayes, Andrew F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression‐based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Journal of Educational Measurement, 51(3), 335-337. Borle, S., Boatwright, P., Kadane, J. B., Nunes, J. C., & Shmueli, G. (2005). The effect of product assortment changes on customer retention. Marketing Science, 24(4), 616-622. Brijs, T., Swinnen, G., Vanhoof, K., & Wets, G. (1999, August). Using association rules for product assortment decisions: A case study. In Proceedings of the fifth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining . ACM. Brodén, A., & Söderberg, C. (2011). Impulse buying, reasons why, consumer electronics, Oh my! (Bachelor’s Thesis). Gothenberg University, Sweden. Chatvijit, S. (2012). Exploring the effects of scarcity, impulse buying, and product returning behavior in the fast fashion environment among female fashion conscious consumers (Master’s Thesis). The University of North Carolina, Greensboro. Chong, J. K., Ho, T. H., & Tang, C. S. (2001). Manufacturing & service operations management. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 3(3), 191-210. Clover , V. T. (1950). Relative importance of impulse-buying in retail stores. Journal of Marketing, 15(1), 66-70. Cop, R., Sonmez , D., & Topuz , Y. V. (2015). Evaluation of window displays by consumers with hedonic and utilitarian purchasing behaviors: A research on Y generation. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(9), 97-111. Cox, R., & Brittain, P. (1993). Retail management. London: Pitman Publishing. Cronback, L. J. (1951). coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychomerika, 16(3), 297-334. De Vaus, D. (2002). Analyzing social science data: 50 key problems in data analysis. London, England:D14 Sage Publications. De Vries-van Ketel, E. (2006). How assortment variety affects assortment attractiveness (No. 72). ERIM Ph.D. Series Research in Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/7193 Dennis, C., Brakus, J. J., Gupta, S., & Alamanos, E. (2014). The effect of digital signage on shoppers’ behavior: The role of the evoked experience. Journal of Business Research, 67 (11), 2250-2257. Dennis, C., Michon, R., Brakus, J. J., Newman, A., & Alamanos, E. (2012). New insights into the impact of digital signage as a retail atmospheric tool. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11(6), 454-466. Dennis, C., Newman, A., Michon, R., Brakus, J. J., & Wright, L. T. (2010). The mediating effects of perception and emotion: Digital signage in mall atmospherics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 17(3), 205-215. Dittmar, H. (1992). The social psychology of material possessions: To have is to be. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. Dittmar, H. (2005). A new look at “compulsive buying”: self–discrepancies and materialistic values as predictors of compulsive buying tendency. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(6), 832-859. Dittmar, H., Beattie, J., & Friese, S. (1996). Objects, decision considerations and self-image in men’s and women’s impulse purchases. Acta Psychologica, 93(1), 187 -206. Ebster, C., & Garaus, M. (2011). Store Design and Visual Merchandising: Creating Store Space that Encourage Buying. New York: Business Expert Press. Gardner, M. P., & Rook, D. W. (1988). Effects of impulse purchases on consumers’ affective states. Advances in Consumer Research,15, 127-130. Hadjali, H. R., Salimi, M., Nazari, M., & Ardestani, M.S. (2012). Exploring main factors affecting on impulse buying behaviors. Journal of American Science, 8(1), 245-251. Hausman, A. (2000). A multi-method investigation of consumer motivation in impulse buying behavior. Journal Of Consumer Marketing, 17(5), 403-419. Hodge, R. (2004). Factors influencing impulse buying during an online purchase transaction (Master’s Thesis). University Of Waterloo Ontario, Canada. Hubrechts, L., & Kokturk, B. (2012). Effects of visual merchandising on young consumer’s impulse buying behavior (Bachelor’s Thesis). Halmstad University, Halland. Iram, M., & Chacharkar, D. D. (2017). Model of impulse buying behavior. BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research, 9(1), 45-53. Iram, M., & Chacharkar, D. D. (2017). Model of impulse buying behavior. BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research, 9(1), 45-53. Sabir, R. I., Farooqi, A. R., & Shahnawaz, M. (2015). Impact of utilization of mannequins on society and sales. Global Journal of Research in Business & Management, 1(1), 38-44. Ma, J., W.-C. (2013). To buy or not to buy? A behavioural approach to examine consumer impulse buying choice in various situations (Doctoral Dissertation). Durham University, England. Jhawar, N., & Kushwaha, V. S. (2017). Visual merchandising and impulse buying behavior with special reference to retail industry. Asian Journal Management, 8(4), 1168-1172. Jiang, P., & Liu, X. (2014, May). The influence of store atmosphere on shoppers’ impulse purchasing behavior (Master’s Thesis). Lund University, Sweden. Kacen, J. J., & Lee, J. A. (2002). The influence of culture on consumer impulsive buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(2), 163-176. Karbasivar, A., & Yarahmadi, H. (2011). Evaluating effective factors on consumer impulse buying behavior. Asian Journal of Business Management Studies, 2(4), 174-181. Khan, A. R. (2009). Digital signage system (Master’s Thesis). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. Kollat, D. T., & Willet, R. P. (1967). Customer impulse purchasing behvior. Journal of Marketing Research, 4(1), 21-31. Lee, J. A., & Kacen, J. J. (2008). Cultural influences on consumer satisfaction with impulse and planned purchase decision. Journal of Business Research, 6(3), 265-272. Levy, & B. Weitz. (2009). Retailing Management. New York: McGraw- Hill/Irwin. Meenakumari, S. (2013). Role of visual merchandise in retailing of super markets in Chennai. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review, 2(9), 120-127. Mehta, N., & Chugan, P. (2012). Visual merchandising: impact on consumer behaviour (an exploratory study of apparel segment in ahmedabad). In N. Delener, L. Fuxman, F. V. Lu, and S. Rodrigues (Eds.), Mapping the Global Future: Evolution through Innovation, and Excellence”, (pp. 607-614). Minal, S., Sanjay, G., & Urvashi, S. (2012 ). Effects of emerging trends in retail sector on impulse buying behavior-with reference to chhattisgarh region. International Journal of Engineering and Management Sciences, 3(2), 142 – 145. Mortensen, N. H., Yu, B., Skovgaard, H. J., & Harlou, U. (2000). Conceptual modeling of product families in configuration projects. 14th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Berlin. Muruganantham, G., Bhakat, R. S., & Priyadharshini, K. (2013, September). Effect of inflation on Indian consumer’s purchase intention. In 11th EBES Conference (pp. 166). Niazi, G. S. K., Siddiqui, J., Shah, B. A., & Hunjra, A. I. (2012). Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior. Information Management and Business Review,4(3), 114-119. Nguyen, M.T. T., Jung, K., Lantz. G., & Loeb, S. G. (2003). An exploratory investigation into impulse buying behavior in a transitional economy: A study of urban consumers in Vietnam. Journal of International Marketing, 11(2), 13-35. Oppewal, H., & Koelemeijer, K. (2005). More choice is better: effects of assortment size and composition on assortment evaluation. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22, 45-60. Parakh, A., Bindal, S., & Saldanha, A. (2016). Impulse buying behavior in adolescents. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2(4), 273-279. Park, E. J., Kim, E. Y., Funches, V. M., & Foxx, W. (2012). Apparel product attributes, WWB browsing, and e-impulse buying on shopping websites. Journal of Business Research, 65, 1583-1589. R, S., & Agarwal, V. (2014). Visual merchandizing: soul of retailing. Pacific Business Review International, 7(6), 1-8. Rook, D. W. (1987). The buying impulse. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 189-199. Rook, D. W., & Fisher, R. J. (1995). Normative influences on impulsive buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 305-313. Sampaio, J. P., Zonatti, W. F., Mendizabal-Alvarez, F. S., Rossi, G. B., & Baruque-Ramos, J. (2017). New technologies applied to the fashion visual merchandising. Modern Economy, 8(3), 412-429. Shahjehan, A., Qureshi, J. A., Zeb, F., & Saifullah, K. (2012). The effect of personality on impulsive and compulsive buying behaviors. African Journal of Business Management, 6(6), 2187-2194. Imran et al. Asian Management Research Journal 2(4) © 2017 SAMR 210 Shamim, S. (2012). Trade marketing and soft drink retail of Pakistan. Elixir Marketing Management, 50, 10235-10244. Sharma, P., Sivakumaran, B., & Marshall, R. (2009). Exploring impulse buying in services vs. Products – Towards a common conceptual framework. In S. Samu, R. Vaidyanathan, and D. Chakravarti Advances in Consumer Research: Association for Consumer Research Vol. 8 (pp. 195-196). Shugan, S. M. (1989). Product assortment in a triopoly. Management Science, 35(3), 304-320. Silvera, D. H., Lavack, A. M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: the role of affect, social influence and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 23-33. Simonson, I. (1999). The effect of product assortment on buyer preferences. Journal of Retailing, 75(3), 347–370. Stern , H. (1962). The significance of impulse buying today. Journal of Marketing, 26(2), 59-62. Tendai, M., & Crispen, C. (2009). In-store shopping environment and impulsive buying. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1(4), 102-108. Thomas, A. K., Louise, R., & Vipinkumar, V. P. (2018). Impact of visual merchandising, on impulse buying behavior of retail customers. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology, 6(2), 474-491. Tifferet, S., & Herstein, R. (2012). Gender differences in brand commitment, impulse buying, and hedonic consumption. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 21(3), 176-182. Tirmizi, M. A., Kashif-Ur-Rehman, & Saif, M. I. (2009). An empirical study of consumer impulse buying behavior in local markets. European Journal of Scientific Research,28(4), 522-532. Valipakka, H. (2008). Capturing Retail Customer’s Attention With Digital Signage: Guides for designing digital signage advertising content and locating digital signage displays in retail environment. JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Finland. Verplanken, B., & Sato, A. (2011). The psychology of impulse buying: an integrative self-regulation approach. Journal of Consumer Policy, 34(2), 197-210. Vohs, K. D., & Faber, R. J. (2007). Self‐regulatory resource availability affects impulse buying. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(4), 537-547. Wanniachchi, N. H., & Kumara, W. V. L. (2016). A study on impact of visual merchandising on consumer buying behaviour in clothing retail stores. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 42-57. Wood, M. (1998). Socio-economic status, delay of gratification, and impulse buying. Journal of Economic Psychology, 19(3), 295-320. Xiao, S. H., & Nicholson, M. (2011). Mapping impulse buying: A behaviour analysis framework for services marketing and consumer research. The Service Industries Journal, 31(15), 2515-2528. Xiao, S. H., & Nicholson, M. (2012). A multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural framework of impulse buying:a systematic review of literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(3), 333- 356. Youn, S., & Faber, J. R. (2000). Impulse buying: its relation to personality traits and cues. Advances in Consumer Research, 27(1), 179-185.